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Table 1 Characteristics of all studied participants

From: Arterial stiffness can occur early in mild-to-moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Variables COPD (GOLD 1 or 2) (n = 80) Healthy controls (n = 80) P value
Age, years 59.1 ± 6.9 61.7 ± 6.3 0.18
Sex    0.79
 Male 73 (91.25%) 71 (88.75%)  
 Female 7 (8.75%) 9 (11.25%)  
Smoking    1.00
 Current 6 (7.5%) 5 (6.25%)  
 Ex-smoker 74 (92.5%) 75 (93.75%)  
Body mass index, kg/m2 23.7 ± 3.6 24.6 ± 4.2 0.15
Serum total cholesterol, mg/dL 187.4 ± 36.5 179.2 ± 31.9 0.13
LDL cholesterol, mg/dL 121.9 ± 36.8 112.5 ± 29.9 0.08
HDL cholesterol, mg/dL 49.9 ± 13.1 48.0 ± 12.2 0.34
Triglycerides, mg/dL 129.4 ± 27.1 127.8 ± 37.6 0.76
FVC % of predicted 83.3 ± 12.4 86.9 ± 9.6 0.04*
FEV1 % of predicted 69.6 ± 15.8 84.5 ± 9.9 < 0.001**
FEV1/FVC 65.7 ± 3.12 78.6 ± 6.76 < 0.001**
mMRC dyspnea scale 1 (1–3) 0 (0–1) < 0.001**
6 min walk distance, m 425 ± 60 530 ± 80 < 0.001**
BODE index 2 (0–5) 0 (0–1) < 0.001**
  1. Values are presented as mean ± SD, median (range), or number (%) unless otherwise specified. COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, GOLD 1 or 2 mild or moderate COPD, HDL high-density lipoprotein, LDL low-density lipoprotein, BODE; body mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise capacity, FEV1 forced expiratory volume in 1 s, FVC forced vital capacity, mMRC Modified Medical Research Council
  2. *Significant, **highly significant