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Table 3 Logistic regression for predictors of ICU admission

From: Prognostic biomarkers in COVID-19 infection: value of anemia, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, and D-dimer

Factors Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
OR (95% CI) p value OR (95% CI) p value
Age (≥ 55 years) 3.4 (2.2–5.3) < 0.001^ 0.87 (0.420–1.8) 0.709
Sex (Ref. = female)
 Male 1.6 (1.0–2.4) 0.042^ 1.8 (0.94–3.5) 0.075
Fever 2.9 (1.7–5.0) < 0.001^ 1.1 (0.49–2.6) 0.774
Constitutional symptoms 2.1 (1.4–3.3) 0.001 1.3 (0.69–2.6) 0.390
Cough 2.5 (1.5–4.1) < 0.001^ 1.0 (0.48–2.2) 0.971
Dyspnea 4.8 (3.0–7.6) < 0.001^ 2.3 (1.1–5.0) 0.032^
Presence of comorbidity 3.0 (1.9–4.8) 0.001^ 3.0 (1.4–6.3) 0.004^
Anemic (HB < 12 g/dl) 3.2 (2.1–5.1) < 0.001^ 3.4 (1.7–6.5) < 0.001 ^
WBCs (Ref. = 4–10*103/ul)
 Low (< 4) 0.72 (0.34–1.5) 0.394 1.4 (0.45–4.6) 0.541
 High (> 10) 3.0 (1.9–4.8) < 0.001 1.03 (0.48–2.2) 0.934
High neutrophil (> 7*103/ul) 3.6 (2.3–5.6) < 0.001^ 1.2 (0.40–3.6) 0.760
Low lymphocyte % (< 20) 4.1 (2.5–6.7) < 0.001^ 0.63 (0.26–1.5) 0.303
Low absolute lymphocytes (< 1.5*103/ul) 2.9 (1.8–4.8) < 0.001^ 0.61 (0.24–1.6) 0.327
High NLR (> 8) 9.7 (5.8–16.2) < 0.001^ 7.2 (2.9–17.7) < 0.001 ^
High PLR (> 192) 4.3 (2.7–6.9) < 0.001^ 3.2 (1.4–7.7) 0.008 ^
INR (≥ 1.1) 3.1 (1.8–5.1) < 0.001^ 1.8 (0.86–3.9) 0.119
Low albumin (< 34 g/L) 1.6 (1.0–2.5) 0.037^ 0.922 (0.49–1.8) 0.806
High AST (> 34 U/L) 1.8 (1.2–2.8) 0.006^ 1.3 (0.64–2.5) 0.496
High ALT (> 45 U/L) 2.2 (1.4–3.4) 0.001^ 1.9 (0.93–4.0) 0.079
High BUN (> 8.2 mmol/L) 3.4 (2.1–5.3) < 0.001^ 1.6 (0.86–3.1) 0.135
High ferritin (> 440 ng/ml) 4.9 (3.1–7.7) < 0.001^ 1.5 (0.77–3.0) 0.226
High D-dimer (> 0.9 mg/L) 5.8 (3.6–9.2) < 0.001^ 2.3 (1.2–4.3) 0.011 ^
High CRP (> 23 mg/dl) 3.7 (2.3–5.9) < 0.001^ 1.3 (0.62–2.) 0.519
  1. HB hemoglobin, WBCs white blood cells, NLR neutrophil lymphocytic ratio, PLR platelets lymphocytic ratio, INR international normalization ratio, AST aspartate aminotransferase, ALT alanine aminotransferase, BUN blood urea nitrogen, CRP C-reactive protein
  2. ^Significant p value