- Smoking cessation
- Open Access
Evaluation of cupping therapy as an adjuvant therapy in a smoking cessation program
Egyptian Journal of Bronchology volume 9, pages 276–282 (2015)
Despite the methods available to aid smoking cessation, it still remains a major problem; thus, there is a need for a new alternative approach to control smoking. This study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of cupping therapy as an adjuvant therapy in a smoking cessation program.
Participants and methods
This pilot randomized study included 46 male smokers attending the outpatient smoking cessation clinic. Patients were divided into two matched groups: the first group included 20 male smokers subjected to a smoking cessation program, whereas the second group included 26 male smokers subjected to the same smoking cessation program as group I in addition to a monthly bloodletting cupping session for 3 consecutive months as an adjuvant. All the smokers included attended three follow-up monthly visits for assessment of outcomes and frequency of withdrawal symptoms.
The success rate was the highest in the first follow-up compared with the second and the third follow-up in group II. There was no significant difference between both groups in the frequency of withdrawal symptoms during the first follow-up. During the second follow-up, there was a significant decrease in the frequency of occurrence of headaches and in the frequency of anxiety in the patients in group II compared with the patients in group I. During the third follow-up, there was a significant decrease in the frequency of occurrence of headache, weight gain, and tiredness in group II compared with group I. There was no significant difference between the outcomes of groups I and II; however, the success rate in group I was higher than that in group II. No significant differences were detected between the outcome in both groups in terms of age and smoking index. There was a significant difference in the effect of the number of cupping therapy sessions in the ability to quit smoking in group II.
Bloodletting cupping therapy, which is not harmful if performed appropriately, is a simple procedure, economic, practical, and may be effective as an adjuvant in a smoking cessation program. Egypt J Broncho 2015 9:276–282 © 2015 Egyptian Journal of Bronchology.
Martin T. Facts and statistics about cigarette smoking. Available at: http://quitsmoking.about.com/od/tobaccostatistics/a/CigaretteSmoke.htm. [Accessed 20 July 2008].
Houghton Mifflin Company. The American heritage dictionary of the English language, alternative medicine. 3rd ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company; 1993.
Curtis N. Management of urinary tract infections: historical perspective and current strategies: Part 1. Before antibiotics. J Urol 2005; 173:21–26.
Abele J. Cupping, a reliable alternative healing method (ISBN3-437-55171). Ulm, Stuttgart, Jena, Lubeck: Gustav Fischer; 1998.
Bondok SM. Cupping; the great missing therapy (ISBN9773423948, 9789773423940). Egypt: Dar Al-Salam Foundation; 2007.
Mohammed A, Farag FM, Sarhan M, et al. Evaluation of cupping therapy in some chronic diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, type 2 DM and chronic HCV infection) [MD, Internal Medicine, thesis]. Egypt: Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University; 2006.
American Cancer Society. Cancer facts & figures. Atlanta, GA: American Cancer Society; 2011.
Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS). Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), Egypt Country Report. GATS; 2009.
Eisenberg DM, Davis RB, Ettner SL, Appel S, Wilkey S, Van Rompay M, Kessler RC. Trends in alternative medicine use in the United States, 1990–1997: results of a follow-up national survey. JAMA 1998; 280:1569–1575.
Abdel-Aal A, El-Tallawy S, Hashish S, Ramadan A. Comparison of interventional versus alternative techniques for low back pain [MD, Anesthesia, thesis]. Egypt: Faculty of Medicine, Minia University; 2005.
Ullah K, Younis A, Wali M. An investigation into the effect of cupping therapy as a treatment for anterior knee pain and its potential role in health promotion. Int J Altern Med 2007; 4:1.
Chirali IZ. Traditional Chinese medicine: cupping therapy. London, England: Churchill Livingstone; 1999.
Sack KE, Fye KH. Rheumatic diseases [chapter 33]. in;in Medical Immunology by Stites DP, Terr AI, Parslow TG, Applen and Lang; Shealy CN; 10th edition published by Lange Medical Books/McGraw-Hill Medical Publishing Division, New York city. 1997. 456–479.
Cadwell V. A primer on acupuncture. J Emerg Nurs 1998; 24:514–517.
Duo X. 100 cases of intractable migraine treated by acupuncture and cupping. J Tradit Chin Med 1999; 19:205–206.
Azizkhani M. The efficacy of Hejamat in treatment of migraine (in Farsi). The Hejamat Research Institute of Iran, Tehran. Am J Chin Med 2000; 36:37–44.
Ahmadi A, Schwebel DC, Rezaei M. The efficacy of wet-cupping in the treatment of tension and migraine headache. Am J Chin Med 2008; 36:37–44.
Reitzel LR, Kendzor DE, Castro Y, Cao Y, Businelle MS, Mazas CA, et al. The relation between social cohesion and smoking cessation among Black smokers, and the potential role of psychosocial mediators. Ann Behav Med 2013; 45:249–257.
Messer K, Trinidad DR, Al-Delaimy WK, Pierce JP. Smoking cessation rates in the United States: a comparison of young adult and older smokers. Am J Public Health 2008; 98:317–322.
Dennis M, Scott CK. Managing addiction as a chronic condition. Addict Sci Clin Pract 2007; 4:45–55.
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as the author is credited and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.
About this article
Cite this article
Saeed, A.M., Mohammed, R.M. & Aty Ibrahim, M.E.A. Evaluation of cupping therapy as an adjuvant therapy in a smoking cessation program. Egypt J Bronchol 9, 276–282 (2015). https://doi.org/10.4103/1687-8426.165935
- cupping therapy
- smoking cessation