Skip to main content

Risk factors of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among rural women, Chittagong, Bangladesh



There are different risk factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Village women of developing countries such as Bangladesh are at a risk of COPD.


The present study was aimed to find risk factors of COPD among rural women of Bangladesh.

Patients and methods

This observational study was conducted in different villages of Chittagong, Bangladesh, among 250 women who were exposed to different risk factors of COPD

Women aged over 40 years were given a questionnaire adopted from a previous prevalence study of COPD in Bangladesh. Spirometry was performed in all subjects. A postbronchodilator ratio of the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) to forced vital capacity (FVC) was calculated among all women who had FEV1/FVC ratio less than 0.70. Women having postbronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio less than 0.70 were diagnosed to have COPD (GOLD criteria). After collection, all data were analyzed by SPSS-20.


Overall prevalence of COPD in rural women aged over 40 years was 20.4%. Most (76.9%) of them who did not have COPD were in the age group of 40–49 years and those who had COPD were in the age group of 60–69 years (51.0%). A majority (60%) of the women were poorly educated or not educated. Most women were housewives (86.4%). FEV1/FVC ratio significantly reduced in relation with different risk factors of COPD. Multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that respiratory distress in family members [odds ratio (OR)=0.633], nature of kitchen (1.206), seasonal variation in cooking (OR=1.245), cough in childhood (OR=0.336), tobacco chewing habit (OR=12.491), type of stove (OR=0.191), history of cough (OR=0.130), and life-time smoking history (OR=0.376) influenced the development of COPD. Lung function also was significantly reduced (P<0.05) among women who were using biomass compared with those using cleaner fuels such as natural gas/liquid petroleum gas.


In the living conditions existing in the rural areas of Chittagong, Bangladesh, biomass smoke pollution, smoking, and cooking habits are some important risk factors of COPD in rural Bangladesh.


  1. Mannino MD, Buist AS. Global burden of COPD: risk factors, prevalence, and future trends. Lancet 2007; 370:765–773.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Rabe KF, Hurd S, Anzueto A, Barners PJ, Buist SA, Calverly P, et al. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: GOLD executive summary. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2007; 176:532–552

  3. Pauwels RA, Buist AS, Peter Calverley PM, Jenkins CR, Hurd SS, GOLD Scientific Committee. Global strategy for the diagnosis, Management and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. NHLBI/WHO Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) Workshop summary. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001; 163:1256–1276.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Hasan MR, Rahman MM.Hossain MA, Mahmud AM, Ahmed MM, Bennor KS, et al. Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease in Bangladesh (BOLD-BD). Report of National COPD Study. Dhaka: Bangladesh Lung Foundation; 2007.

  5. Raherison C, Girodet PO. Epidemiology of COPD. Eur Respir Rev 2009; 18:213–221.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Aydanur E, Mehmet E, Ercan K, Ahmet A, Mesut A, Turkan K, et al. Obstructive airway disease in women exposed to biomass smoke. Environ Res 2005; 99:93–99.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Liu S, Zhou Y, Wang X, Wang D, Lu J, Zheng J, et al. Biomass fuels are the probable risk factor for chronic obstruct pulmonary disease in rural South China. Thorax 2007; 62:889–897.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Rajat S. R. Biswas MD.

Additional information

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work noncommercially, as long as the author is credited and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.

Rights and permissions

This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Biswas, R.S.R., Chowdhury, F.K. Risk factors of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among rural women, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Egypt J Bronchol 11, 188–192 (2017).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: